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Estimating Component Values - Dairy Products


 Updated 2015-08-15

 Estimating Component Values for Dairy Products

Milk is characteristic by being the mammals' only food i the first time after birth. Like for other foods, there are some clear biologically and/or physiologically determined relations between core components in milk from animals.

There are of course major differences in the milk produced by different mammals and there are natural variations - sometimes significant - in the composition of milk. The variations may differ be due to breed of animal, stage of lactation, season, feed, weather and precipitation has an impact on the nutrient content in the feed, etc., and also the impact of the production system (conventional/organic) is well known.
The diverse circumstances impact differently on the milks' composition.

In many countries the bovine (Bos taurus L.) milk, cow's milk, is the most important and its milk lipids are the core components in the production of dairy products. Many of the dairy products are characterized by a standardization of the content of the milk lipids, which is the case with drinking milk/liquid milk/sweet milk, the fermented milks, and in cheeses combined with drainage of whey constituents involving considerable changes in the moisture content.

The distribution of components in milk

Bovine milk is characterized as lipids (3 to 5%) occuring as globules emulsified in the aqueous phase (87%) of milk, and typically, raw bovine milk contains 3.2 - 3.5% protein. The globules contain nonpolar or core lipids such as triacylglycerols, cholesteryl esters, and retinol esters. The globule membranes' outer loose layer is coated with bipolar materials, like proteins, cholesterol  enzymes, etc. (Jensen, 2002). For comparison, milk from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer (Sparrman, 1779)) contains on average 6.3% protein, 13.4% lipids and 80% moisture (Osthoff et al, 2009).
In the aqueous phase most of the protein is dissolved collodially in the form of casein micelles.

Relations between components in milk and cheeses

The traditional processes in the dairy industry involve separation of the emulsified lipid phase from the aquous phase with a following standardization to a specific lipid content in the final product. In theory, the components bound to or dissolved in the lipid phase will follow the lipids; similarly, the components in the aqueous phase will follow aqueous phase.
Therefore, simple mass balances can be used to calculate the content of components in the final milk product provided that the distribution of components between the lipid and aqueous phases is known and that variability in their content is fairly stable in the raw milk.
However, when newer production techniques, like ultrafiltration, are applied, it is more difficult to follow the components in the different phases of the liquid.

These pages will describe the relations between components in milk, butter and cheese based on a series of thorough investigations of components in milk and milk products carried out in Denmark and in Sweden over the last 30 years by the Danish Dairy Research, the national Food Agency, and the Swedish Dairy Association.

The description of the relations between components in cows' milk is divided up in the following two groups

For milk of other origin, like ovine milk (Ovis aries L.), camel milk (Camelus dromedarius Linnaeus, 1758 or Camelus bactrianus Linnaeus, 1758), horses' milk (Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758), etc., the information currently available is not sufficient to make a thorough description.


 References

  • Bro-Rasmussen F.:
    Statens Vitaminlaboratoriums undersøgelser over danske mejeriprodukters indhold af A-vitamin og caroten.
    Statens Husholdningsråd, Faglige Meddelelser nr. 10, p. 37-40, 1956.
     
  • Leth T.:
    Danske levnedsmidlers indhold af E-vitamin samt tilnærmet beregning af af E-vitamintilførslen med den danske kost.
    Statens Husholdningsråd, Tekniske Meddelelser nr. 1, p. 21-31, 1975.
     
  • Hjarde W., Laier G., Leth T., Søndergård H., Sørensen A.:
    Næringsstofindholdet i nyere mælkeprodukter.
    Statens Levnedsmiddelinstitut, Publikation nr. 60, 1982.
     
  • Søndergaård H.:
    Folinsyre i konsummælkprodukter.
    Statens Levnedsmiddelinstitut, 1981.
     
  • Statens Forsøgsmejeri:
    Konsummælkprodukternes sammensætning og indhold af næringsstoffer.
    Statens Forsøgsmejeri, May 1980.
     
  • Larsen J., Werner H.:
    Konsummælkprodukternes indhold af kulhydrat og mælke- og citronsyre [Carbohydrates, lactic acids and citric acid in liquid milk products].
    243. Beretning.
    Statens Forsøgsmejeri, June 1981.
     
  • Larsen J., Werner H.:
    Konsummælksprodukternes indhold af calcium, magnium, natrium, kalium, fosfor, klorid og jern [Calcium,magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and iron in liquid milk products].
    Beretning nr. 257.
    Statens Forsøgsmejeri, November 1984.
     
  • Laustsen A. M., Jensen K. G.:
    Konsummælksprodukternes indhold af tørstof, fedt og protein samt pH og titer [Total solids, fat, protein, pH and titratable acidity in market milk products].
    Beretning nr. 260.
    Statens Mejeriforsøg, December 1984.
     
  • Larsen J., Werner H.:
    Konsummælkprodukternes indhold af tungmetaller [Heavy metals in market milkproducts].
    Beretning nr. 262.
    Statens Mejeriforsøg, November 1985.
     
  • Larsen J., Jensen F. H., Werner H.:
    Konsummælksprodukternes indhold af vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D og E samt folacin [Vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E and folates in market milk products].
    Beretning nr. 264.
    Statens Mejeriforsøg, September 1985.
     
  • Wienberg A., Leth T.:
    Food Monitoring System for Nutirents - Dairy Products
    Publication No. 151.
    Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen, Søborg October 1987.
     
  • Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen:
    Overvågningssystem for levnedsmidler, Næringsstoffer og forureninger 1983-1987. Publikation nr. 187 (Marts 1990).
     
  • Skotte Jacobsen J. and Leth T.:
    Overvågningssystem for næringsstoffer - mejeriprodukter, 2. runde [Food Monitoring System for Nutrients - Dairy Products, 2nd cycle].
    Intern rapport CLA92004.
    Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen, december 1992.
     
  • Levnedsmiddelstyrelsen:
    Overvågningssystem for levnedsmidler 1988-1992.
    Publikation nr. 232.
    Levnedsmidedelstyrelsen, december 1995.
     
  • Skotte Jacobsen J. and Knuthsen P.:
    Overvågningssystem for næringsstoffer - mejeriprodukter, 3. runde [Food Monitoring System for Nutrients - Dairy Products, 3rd cycle].
    Rapport IFE 1998.2
    Veterinær- og Fødevaredirektoratet, maj 1997.
     
  • Lund P., Thymark L.:
    Sammensætning af smør og andre spisefedttyper [Composition of butter and other types of edible fat].
    Forsøgsrapport nr. 29.
    Statens Mejeriforsøg, February 1988.
     
  • Lindmark Månsson H.:
    Den svenska mejerimjölkens sammansättning 1996.
    Rapport nr. 4968.
    Svensk Mjölk Forskning, Lund, February 1999.
     
  • Lindmark Månsson H.:
    Den svenska mejerimjölkens sammansättning 2001.
    Rapport nr. 7038-P.
    Svensk Mjölk Forskning, Lund, December 2004.
     
  • Lindmark Månsson H.:
    Den svenska mejerimjölkens sammansättning 2009.
    Sammanfattning af analysresultat.
    Rapport nr. 7090-P.
    Svensk Mjölk Forskning, Lund, December 2010.
     
  • Jensen R. G.:
    The Composition of Bovine Milk Lipids: January 1995 to December 2000.
    Journal of Dairy Science 85, pp. 295–350, 2002.
     
  • Molkentin J.:
    Cholesterol content and lipid composition of low fat dairy products.
    European Food Research and Technology  223, pp. 253–260, 2006.
     
  • Nataf:
    The Cholesterol Content of Cows' Milk.
    The Journal of Nutrition Vol. 36, 4, pp. 495-506, 1948.
     
  • Osthoff G., Hugo A., de Wit M., Mai Nguyen T. P.:
    The chemical composition of milk from free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).
    South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39, 1, pp. 97–102, April 2009.
      
  • Piironen V., Toivo J., Lampi A.-M.:
    New Data for Cholesterol Contents in Meat, Fish, Milk, Eggs and Their Products Consumed in Finland.
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 15, pp. 705-713, 2002.
     
  • Precht D.:
    Cholesterol content in European bovine milk fats.
    Nahrung 45 (1) pp. 2-8, 2001


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