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Estimating Component Values - Pork


 Updated 2019-11-22

 Pork on the Danish Market 2015

In 2015, DTU National Food Institute carried out a project in collaboration with The Danish National Food Agency. The aim of the project was to investigate whether the data for pork from the 1990s was consistent with pork available on the Danish market in 2015, and to provide information on the nutrient content of the new types of pork cuts. Within the financial framework for the project, conventionally produced Danish pork was prioritized as it constitutes approximately 90% of fresh pork bought by Danish households.

A conventionally farmed Danish pig is a very consistent product. Particularly the percentage of lean meat will determine whether the pork cuts are sold on the domestic or the export market. The sampling criteria were set to reflect an average Danish pig on the Danish market.

The ten pigs sampled for the project contained 59.8-60.7% of lean meat. A total of 12 different cuts were analyzed: pork loin trimmed to 1 and 3 mm fat, pork loin with rind, tenderloin, neck fillet, pork belly, pork cheek, and 5 different cuts of ham trimmed for fat at different levels. The analytical program included fat and fatty acids, nitrogen, dry matter, ash, cholesterol, vitamins (A, D, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin), minerals (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, manganese) and elements (chromium, selenium, nickel). The results support the assertion that no change has occurred in Danish pig breeding, which has influenced the content of macro- and micronutrients in the period from 1993 to 2015.

The study also shows there has been a move towards pork cuts being trimmed for fat at different levels. Completely trimmed tenderloin without chain muscle has a lower fat content than tenderloin sold as trimmed. Thus, the trimming that occurs before cooking has a significant impact on the content of fat, while trimming has less of an impact on the content of protein. Trimming changes the content of fat from 22 g/100 g to 10 g/100 g to 4 g/100 g respectively for a pork loin with rind, a pork loin with a 3mm fat edge, or a pork loin with a 0-1 mm fat edge. For protein the content changes from 18.5 g/100g, 20.8 g/100 g and 22.6 g/100 g in the same cuts.


 The Danish Pork Data

The project report contains results of the proximate analyses for 82 samples (22 different pork cuts), which makes it possible to investigate eventual dependencies between the components analysed.

The proximates have been analysed in all 82 samples, but unfortunately, in the samples analysed for vitamins and minerals only total lipid was analysed in 12 samples. Therefore, the statistical analyses of vitamins' and minerals' dependencies with proximate content is somewhat weaker for protein and dry matter.

Results of statistical analyses of proximate components
Dry Matter by Total Lipid

Naturally, one could say, dry matter shows an almost perfect dependency of total lipid. In addition, the "about 80"-rule (sum of total lipid and moisture is a little above 80%).

 

Danish Pork 2015 - dry matter by total lipid

 

Nitrogen by Total Lipid

Similar to dry matter by total lipid, nitrogen by total lipid shows a linear dependency of total lipid, but less outspoken.

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Nitrogen by Total lipid

 

Ash by Total lipid

Similar to dry matter by total lipid and nitrogen by total lipid, ask by total lipid shows - as expected - a nice linear dependency of total lipid.

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Ash by Total Lipid

 

Carbohydrate by Total Lipid

As Meinert et al. clearly showed, there are small amounts of carbohydrate in pork. In this study, however, the carbohydrate values are extremely uncertain due to the method, carbohydrate by difference, used to obtain the carbohydrate values. Not only do the calculated carbohydrate values include all the uncertainties of the determination of nitrogen, total lipid, ash and dry matter, in addtion the values of protein (nitrogen x 6.25) and total lipid may be just a little overestimated by the used analytical/calculation methods.
The values are presented here just as an indication of a possible (small) carbohydrate content. The linear relationship between carbohydrate and total lipid is here so bad that it should actually not be shown.

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Carbohydrate by Total lipid

 

Results for statistical analyses of fatty acid sums and cholesterol against total lipid content
Fatty acid sums by Total Lipid

The fatty acid sums from the analysis in the Dansh Pork 2015 project shows a completely linear dependency of the total lipid content in the samples as it should. The lipid conversion factor for the pork cuts in this study can be read from the slope of the Total FA line, here 0.944 g FA/g total lipid. However, the intercept os not complete zero (0,0). Forcing the intercept to zero (0,0), the slope of the linear regression line will be slightly lower: 0.928 g FA/100 g total lipid. This is value lies between the theoretical values of 0.91 (lean pork meat) and 0.953 (pork adipose tissue) listed by B. A Anderson (JADA 1976) and may be used as an average lipid acid conversion factor for Danish pork.

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Sums of FAs by Total lipid

 

As indicated by B. A. Anderson, the lipid conversion factor is not constant, which can also be seen from the Danish data. From the Danish data it seems like the lipid conversion factor is lower for cuts with a low content og total lipid and higher for the more fatty meat:

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Calculated lipid conversion factor by Total lipid 

 

The small increase in the calculated lipid conversion factor is most marked in the range below 5 to 10% total lipid indicated by the red line, which is only shown to indicate the trend - it is not an exact indicator.

The calculations presented above does not include contributions from the trans fatty acid C18:1 tr. Including the trans fatty acid in the calculation will not raise the average lipid conversion factor significantly, because the content of C18:1 tr is relatively small (0.005 to 0.06 g/100 g EP dependent on total lipid content) in comparison to the other fatty acids. 

 

Cholesterol by Total Lipid

In this study cholesterol shows no (or very little) dependency on the total lipid content of the pork cut samples. The average choleserol content in Danish pork is about 61 mg/ 100 g EP with a relatively large range from 52 to 75 mg/100 g EP.
Interstingly, the cholesterol content does not seem to change much with time, which is also one of the study's conclusions. The white line in the diagram shows the cholesterol content calculated with the formula deducted from USDA and British data for the Danish food composition table more than three decades ago. The old cholestrol estimation procedure includes both total lipid and protein, see the explanations from previsous version of the Danish Food Composition Database Internet link. The similarity is striking.

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Cholesterol by Total lipid

 

Results of statistical analyses of vitamins against total lipid content (currently uncommented)
Retinol by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Retinol by Total lipid

 

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and 25-OH Vitamin D (25-OH cholecalciferol) by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Vitamin D3 by Total lipid

 

α-Tocopherol by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Alpha-Tocoferol by Total lipid

 

Vitamin B1 by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Vitamin B1 by Total Lipid

 

Vitamin B2 by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Vitamin B2 by Total Lipid

 

Niacin by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Niacin by Total Lipid

 

Vitamin B6 by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Vitamin B6 By Total Lipid

 

Pantothenic acid by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Pantothenic Acid by Tal Lipid

 

Biotin by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Biotin by Total Lipid

 

Vitamin B12 by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Vitamin B12 by Total Lipid

 

Results of statistical analyses of minerals against total lipid content (currently uncommented)
Sodium by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Sodium by Total Lipid

 

Potassium by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Potassium by Total Lipid

 

Calcium by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Calcium by Total Lipid

 

Magnesium by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Magnesium by Total Lipid

 

Phosphorus by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Phosphorus by Total Lipid

 

Iron by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Iron by Total Lipid

 

by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Copper by Total Lipid

 

Zinc by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Zinc by Total Lipid

 

Manganese by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Manganese by Total Lipid

 

Chromium by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Chromium by Total Lipid

 

Selenium by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Selenium by Total Lipid

 

Nickel by Total Lipid

 

Danish Pork 2015 - Nickel by Total Lipid

 

 


 References


 



 News
First Anniversary release of USDA ARS FoodData Central

2020-05-17
For more information, see USDA National Agricultural Library's Food and Nutrition Updates - May 2020.
 
Report Report on nutrient analysis of key cuts of British pork

2020-04-28
Analytical survey on key cuts of pork sold in the UK commissioned by Agriculture and Horticultural Development Board (AHDB) and Public Health England (PHE). See Quadram Institute Bioscience’s Food Databanks National Capability website.
 
NEVO-Online 2019

2019-11-19
New edition of Dutch food composition database NEVO-online: compositional data on more than 2150 food items - 2019. See NEVO website.
 
USDA ARS FoodData Central

2019-10-01
USDA's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) has established FoodData Central. Available at fdc.nal.usda.gov.